But I made the science so egregiously bad that no competent peer reviewer would accept it.
Reid Lyon and Vinita Chhabra To prevent reading failure, educators must understand and act on scientific evidence. Yet that goal remains elusive. The report of the most recent National Assessment of Educational Progress NAEP indicates that once again, 4th, 8th, and 12th grade reading scores are abysmally low, particularly among disadvantaged students National Center for Education Statistics, This situation is especially distressing because we now know that the majority of students can learn to read irrespective of their backgrounds—if their reading instruction is grounded in the converging Good science research paper topics evidence about how reading develops, why many students have difficulties, and how we can prevent reading failure Lyon, ; Moats, ; Shaywitz, Unfortunately, many teachers do not have the background or training they need to access this information and implement research-based reading instruction in their classrooms.
Instead of looking to authoritative and valid evidence of what works, teachers frequently rely on experience and anecdotal information to guide their teaching. Although experience is valuable, depending on experience alone typically leaves many children behind.
To provide reading instruction that will enable all students to succeed, educators must also have basic information about scientific knowledge: Understanding Scientific Evidence Scientific evidence must become a fundamental part of teaching.
Teachers should ask hard questions about the reading programs and instructional methods they use: Does the program comprehensively cover each of the evidence-based skills that students need to read proficiently?
Has the program or approach been proven scientifically to work with students like mine? How can I be sure? From talking to principals and teachers, we know that they are aware of the current emphasis on using scientific evidence to inform instruction.
However, jargon and a lack of clear guidance make it difficult for educators to develop a good understanding of the term scientific evidence. What Is Scientific Evidence? Before considering research evidence, however, we must understand the process of conducting scientific research.
Scientific research begins with clear, answerable questions. Researchers consider not just what works in general but also what specific instructional methods work for which students and under what conditions.
Multiple researchers may study the same questions. The accumulation of research—not just the results from one study—constitutes scientific evidence. Before beginning a study, researchers identify what previous research has already established and refine their research questions on the basis of that knowledge.
Next, the researchers develop a hypothesis or a set of hypotheses that will guide the direction and methodology used in the study.
Specifically, the hypotheses state what researchers predict will happen on the basis of the theoretical model they are using, with the model itself incorporating information from previously conducted, high-quality studies.
The researchers then identify an appropriate method for testing the hypothesis. Finally, they collect and analyze the data and report their findings. Even though different types of studies use different method-ologies, the scientific method provides a consistent foundation for each research study.
The evidence derived from a study is only as good as the care with which the researchers ask their questions, select and implement their research methods, and analyze and interpret their data.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Research methodologies fall into two major types—qualitative and quantitative. Both types of research can be valuable and relevant to improving education.
Qualitative research is based on holistic inquiry and is context-specific, acknowledging the uniqueness of individuals and settings Ravid, Researchers using this approach rely on observation and description of events.
In contrast, quantitative research seeks to quantify observations made on larger numbers of individuals and events; it is not context-specific. Researchers working with this approach use deductive inquiry, focus on individual variables and factors, and make comparisons Wiersma, Quantitative researchers look for findings that they can generalize to similar settings using statistical analyses.
Both experimental and quasi-experimental studies attempt to establish causal relationships by manipulating the variable that the hypothesis predicts will cause a change a particular reading program, for example and then determining whether or not a significant change occurred while holding other variables constant.
The two approaches differ in the methods they use to rule out alternative explanations for any effects. Although true experimental design typically produces more reliable results than quasi-experimental design, both approaches enable us to determine cause and effect.
The type of research question asked tells us which research method or combination of methods to employ. Qualitative research has a role in helping to tease out the how or why in quantitative studies designed to find out what works.
But qualitative research cannot produce generalizable results identifying instructional strategies that will improve reading achievement. Only quantitatively based studies—experimental or quasi-experimental—can do that.Olmsted, Blaxill and Stagliano provide current news from inside the autism epidemic on science, politics, treatment, government affairs, vaccine safety and more.
Order Research Paper Proposal and Get Guaranteed Academic Success. Research papers are probably the most frequently assigned task for college and university students. How To Get Published.
The strength of Science and its online journal sites rests with the strengths of its community of authors, who provide cutting-edge research, incisive scientific commentary.
There are several journals that are free of cost that have high reputation. By the way, to be valid scientific knowledge it should be peer reviewed and have or be in process to get a ISSN.
This article includes everything you need for writing an interesting essay: Easy technology topics with links to videos, articles, and research to start your paper. An argumentative essay requires you to decide on a topic and take a position on it.
You'll need to back up your viewpoint with well-researched facts and information as well. One of the hardest parts is deciding which topic to write about, but there are plenty of ideas available to get you started.