Supreme Court ruled that under the 4th and 14th Constitutional amendments, illegally seized evidence could not be used in a state criminal trial.
July 9, by NCC Staff On the th anniversary of the 14th Amendment's ratification, Constitution Daily looks at 10 historic Supreme Court cases about due process and equal protection under the law.
On July 9,Louisiana and South Carolina voted to ratify the amendment, after they had rejected it a year earlier.
The votes made the 14th Amendment officially part of the Constitution. But in the ensuing years, the Supreme Court was slow to decide how the new and old rights guaranteed under the federal constitution applied to the states.
In the early Supreme Court decisions about the 14th Amendment, the Court often ruled in favor of limiting the incorporation of these rights on a state and local level.
But starting in the s, the Court embraced the application of due process and equal protection, despite state laws that conflicted with the 14th Amendment.
Here is a look at 10 famous Court decisions that show the progression of the 14th Amendment from Reconstruction to the era of affirmative action. Justice Samuel Miller dismissed the butchers' claims regarding due process and involuntary servitude.
The privileges and immunities of U. Plessy argued that the Louisiana statute violated the 13th and 14th Amendments by treating black Americans inferior to whites. Plessy lost in every court in Louisiana before appealing to the Supreme Court in In a decision, the Court held that as long as the facilities were equal, their separation satisfied the 14th Amendment.
Justice John Marshall Harlan authored the lone dissent. Passionately he clarified that the Constitution was color-blind, railing the majority for an opinion which he believed would match Dred Scott in infamy. A socialist named Benjamin Gitlow printed an article advocating the forceful overthrow of the government and was arrested under New York state law.
Gitlow argued that the First Amendment guaranteed freedom of speech and the press. When police asked to search her home, Mapp refused unless the police produced a warrant.
The police used a piece of paper as a fake warrant and gained access to her home illegally. After searching the house without finding the bombing suspect, police discovered sexually explicit materials and arrested Mapp under state law that prohibited the possession of obscene materials.
Mapp was convicted of possessing obscene materials and faced up to seven years in prison before she appealed her case on the argument that she had a First Amendment right to possess the material.
Gideon, a Florida resident, was charged in Florida state court for breaking and entering into a poolroom with the intent to commit a crime.
Due to his poverty, Gideon asked the Florida court to appoint an attorney for him. The court declined to do this and pointed to state law which said that the only time indigent defendants could be appointed an attorney was when charged with a capital offense.
Left with no other choice, Gideon represented himself in trial and lost. He filed a petition of habeas corpus to the Florida Supreme Court, arguing that he had a constitutional right to be represented with an attorney, but the Florida Supreme Court did not grant him any relief.
Case Brief Mapp v. Ohio Facts: Three Police officers went to Mapps house after receiving a call that a bomber was hiding there. The officers knocked and asked to gain entry but Mapp would not allow them without a search warrant and the chance to speak to her attorney. Spokeo searches thousands of sources across 12 billion public records to look up the most recent owner of that number, whether it’s a landline or cell phone number, the location, and even the carrier if available. In Mapp v. Ohio, the exclusionary rule was established which states that evidence illegally seized may not be used on any level of the government to convict suspects. Since the evidence used to convict Mapp was illegally obtained, the evidence could not be used against Mapp.
Estelle Griswold was the director of a Planned Parenthood clinic in Connecticut when she was arrested for violating a state statute that prohibited counseling and prescription of birth control to married couples. The question before the Supreme Court was whether the Constitution protected the right of married couples to privately engage in counseling regarding contraceptive use and procurement.
It remains at the core of substantive due process debate today. Mildred and Richard Loving were residents of one such state, Virginia, who had fallen in love and wanted to get married. The two traveled to Washington D. Because their offense was a criminal conviction, after being found guilty, they were given a prison sentence of one year.MAPP V.
OHIO, decided on 20 June , was a landmark court case originating in Cleveland, in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that under the 4th and 14th Constitutional amendments, illegally seized evidence could not be used in a state criminal trial.
This decision significantly changed state law. In Mapp v. Ohio, the exclusionary rule was established which states that evidence illegally seized may not be used on any level of the government to convict suspects.
Since the evidence used to convict Mapp was illegally obtained, the evidence could not be used against Mapp. A multimedia judicial archive of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Finally, the Court in that case clearly stated that use of the seized evidence involved "a denial of the constitutional rights of the accused." At p. Thus, in the year , in the Weeks case, this Court "for the first time" held that, "in a federal prosecution, the Fourth Amendment barred the use of evidence secured through an illegal.
In Mapp v.
Ohio, the Court applies the Exclusionary Rule, which bars the admission of evidence obtained via an illegal search and seizure, to state courts.
Ms. Mapp lost several appeals before her case, Mapp v. Ohio, was argued before the Supreme Court in March Much of the legal debate was over whether Ohio’s obscenity law violated the First.