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General Grant at City Point is a composite of three different photographs. Vintage manipulated photo of World War I battle action including details combined from multiple photos.
Joseph Stalin pictured with the "Vanishing Commissar" Nikolai Yezhov before retouching The photo after retouching, with Yezhov entirely removed Goebbels family portrait photo in which the visage of the uniformed Haraldwho was actually away on military duties, was inserted and retouched.
Retouching tools from the pre-digital era: Photo manipulation dates back to some of the earliest photographs captured on glass and tin plates during the 19th century. Some darkroom manipulations involved techniques such as bleaching to artfully lighten or totally wash-out parts of the photograph, or hand coloring for aesthetic purposes or to mimic a fine art painting.
While the equipment and technology progressed over time, it was not until the late 20th century that photography evolved into the digital realm. At the onset, digital photography was considered by some to be a radical new approach, and was initially rejected by photographers because of its substandard quality.
Calhoun and the head of Lincoln from a famous seated portrait by Mathew Brady — the same portrait which was the basis for the original Lincoln five-dollar bill. Grant posing horseback in front of his troops at City Point, Virginia. For example, Grant's head is set at a strange angle to his body, his uniform is of a different time period, and his favorite horse Cincinnati did not have a left hind sock like the horse in the photograph, although his other horse Egypt did have a sock but on a different foot.
With further research, three different photographs were discovered that explained the composite using Grant's head from one photograph, the body of Major General Alexander McDowell McCook atop his horse from another photograph, and for the background, an photograph of Confederate prisoners captured at the Battle of Fisher's Hill.
Political and ethical issues[ edit ] Photo manipulation has been used to deceive or persuade viewers or improve storytelling and self-expression. As early as the American Civil War, photographs were published as engravings based on more than one negative.
Stalin had Trotsky retouched out of a photograph showing Trotsky in attendance. The pioneer among journalists distorting photographic images for news value was Bernarr Macfadden: In the s, artist John Heartfield used a type of photo manipulation known as the photomontage to critique Nazi propaganda.
Some ethical theories have been applied to image manipulation. During a panel on the topic of ethics in image manipulation  Aude Oliva theorized that categorical shifts are necessary in order for an edited image to be viewed as a manipulation.
In Image Act Theory,  Carson Reynolds extended speech act theory by applying it to photo editing and image manipulations.
Mitchell details the long history of photo manipulation and discusses it critically. Use in journalism[ edit ] See also: The altered image made two Egyptian pyramids appear closer together than they actually were in the original photograph.
Shortly after the incident, Tom Kennedy, director of photography for National Geographic stated, "We no longer use that technology to manipulate elements in a photo simply to achieve a more compelling graphic effect.
One such incident arose in early after Martha Stewart was released from prison. Newsweek used a photograph of Stewart's face on the body of a much slimmer woman for their cover, suggesting that Stewart had lost weight while in prison.
The image in question was a fraudulent composite image of John Kerry taken on June 13, and Jane Fonda taken in August, sharing the same platform at a antiwar rally; the latter of which carried a fake Associated Press credit with the intent to change the public's perspective of reality.
In the United States, for example, the National Press Photographers Association NPPA established a Code of Ethics which promotes the accuracy of published images, advising that photographers "do not manipulate images [ The world of glamour photography is one specific industry which has been heavily involved with the use of photo manipulation what many consider to be a concerning element as many people look up to celebrities in search of embodying the 'ideal figure'.Set the right tone for your magazine with the perfect magazine cover.
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