The Institutions of Foreign Policy Key Concepts in the Constitution The Constitution, which was approved by the delegates to the Convention on September 17,established a republican form of government, explained the organization of that government, and outlined the federal system. Republican form of government The Constitution established the United States as a republic in which power ultimately is in the hands of the people and is exercised by their elected representatives. The Republic was not a democracy in the modern sense, however. The framers of the Constitution, many reluctantly, accepted slavery.
This Topic Page concerns Federalism. Federalism is not mentioned explicitly in the Constitution, but federalism is one of the many concepts that the Constitution embodies.
There are three major types of government in the place in the world today. The most prevalent is the unitary system. In a unitary system, power is held at the national level, with very little power being held in political subdivisions, such as provinces, counties, parishes, or towns.
The least common is the confederation. Confederations are unions of equal states, with some power being held at the national level. Generally, it has been found that conflicting interests lead to the break-down of confederations.
The third major system is the federal system. In a federal system, the national government holds significant power, but the smaller political subdivisions also hold significant power. Is any one of these better than the other? That is a matter of opinion.
In this context, federalism can be defined as a system of government in which powers are divided among two levels of government of equal status. In the United States, for example, the system of federalism — as created by the U.S. Constitution — divides powers between the national government and the various state and territorial governments. Federalism is a system of government in which power is divided between a national (federal) government and various state governments. In the United States, the U.S. Constitution gives certain powers to the federal government, other powers to the state governments, and yet other powers to both. Under the Constitution, state and local governments have every right to refuse to help enforce federal law. In cases like Printz v. United States () and New York v.
Suffice it to say that each has its positives and negatives, and as such, the choice for which to use in any particular nation depends on the nation, its people, its existing political subdivisions. The United States was a series of colonies under the British unitary system; upon the execution of the Revolution, the United States became a confederation under the Articles of Confederation ; and when that system proved unsuccessful, it was transformed into a federal system by the Constitution.
Federal systems are chosen for a number of reasons. The size of the nation might be one concern; the diversity of the political subdivisions might be another. The United States combines a bit of both: Nations like Switzerland have a population split by language, and despite its small size, found federalism to be a better choice than the others.
China, being an extremely large and extremely diverse nation, finds the unitary system more suited to its political ideology. However, communism does not require a unitary system: Federalism in the United States has evolved quite a bit since it was first implemented in In that time, two major kinds of federalism have dominated political theory.
The first, dual federalism, holds that the federal government and the state governments are co-equals, each sovereign. In this theory, parts of the Constitution are interpreted very narrowly, such as the 10th Amendmentthe Supremacy Clausethe Necessary and Proper Clauseand the Commerce Clause.
In this narrow interpretation, the federal government has jurisdiction only if the Constitution clearly grants such. In this case, there is a very large group of powers belonging to the states, and the federal government is limited to only those powers explicitly listed in the Constitution.
The second, cooperative federalism, asserts that the national government is supreme over the states, and the 10th Amendment, the Supremacy Clause, the Necessary and Proper Clause, and the Commerce Clause have entirely different meaning.
The shift from dual to cooperative was a slow one, but it was steady. Federal laws concerning labor, civil rights, and civil liberties began to take on a new priority. National laws, and amendments to the Constitution, have taken away many powers from the states, such as the ability to significantly restrict voting rights or the ability to draw political districts at the whim of political party bosses.
Some advocate a return to an emphasis on dual federalism as a returning of power to a government closer to the people, and hence under better popular control. There are many problems with this, however, as many states found in the Reagan era. President Reagan was a strong advocate of states rights, and wanted to return many of the powers taken up by the federal government to the states.
But in many cases, this created more bureaucracy, as each of the 50 states had to establish offices to administer programs the federal government handed over. Worse, the transition was often unfunded, meaning that the costs of the programs were shifted to the states, but federal taxes were not reduced accordingly, leading to a higher tax burden on the people as states raised taxes to fund the programs.
Worse, when federal taxes were cut, federal aid to the states that did exist was cut as well. But despite the appeal of cooperative federalism, there is an on-going appeal to a degree of dual federalism.
Regardless of the kind of federalism current the Constitution does provide some very specific powers to both the states and the federal government.
These powers are traditionally divided into three categories. Reserved powers are those that have been reserved specifically for the states or are of a traditionally state scope. These consist mostly of police powers, such as providing fire and police protection, establishment of health regulations, licensing, and education.
Granted powers, also known as express, enumerated, implied, delegated, and inherent powers, are those specifically listed in Article 1, Section 8such as the power to coin money, to raise an army and navy, to provide for patent and copyright protections, to establish a post office, and to make treaties and war with other nations.Start studying politics exam 1.
Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Search. democracy as practiced in the united states and most other western nations is best described as what?
What is the fundamental concept behind federalism?
some powers belong to governments, other belong to the national. politics exam 1.
Key Concepts in the Constitution The Constitution, which was approved by the delegates to the Convention on September 17, , established a republican form of government, explained the organization of that government, and outlined the federal system. Federalism is a type of government in which the power is divided between the national government and other governmental units. It contrasts with a unitary government, in which a central authority holds the power, and a confederation, in which states, for example, are clearly dominant. Creating the Constitution The Constitution is the basis of the United States government. All debates over laws have the few pages of the Constitution as their basis, and much political conflict has arisen due to different traditions of interpreting its clauses. Article IV defined the relationship between the federal government and the.
STUDY. PLAY. has dwindled, is in a precarious state, voter turnout is below, trust has decreased. democracy as practiced in the united states and most other western nations is best described as what?
What is the fundamental concept behind federalism? some powers belong to governments, other belong to the national govt. Creating the Constitution The Constitution is the basis of the United States government. All debates over laws have the few pages of the Constitution as their basis, and much political conflict has arisen due to different traditions of interpreting its clauses.
Article IV defined the relationship between the federal government and the. Under the Constitution, state and local governments have every right to refuse to help enforce federal law.
In cases like Printz v. United States () and New York v.
How federalism and the Constitution can help protect sanctuary cities. 1. Federalism, the Constitution, and sanctuary cities. By Ilya Somin. United States (), the Supreme.
Federalism. Federalism is one of the most important and innovative concepts in the U.S. Constitution, although the word never appears there.