His position was a peculiarly onerous one, his duties were most difficult, and the noble example of disinterestedness and self-sacrifice set by him on more than one occasion when actual starvation stared the colonists—free as well as bond—in the face, has never been surpassed by any ruler in ancient or modern times. After the lapse of a hundred years one can hardly conceive the difficulties attendant upon official life in the days when Governor Phillip held absolute sway.
Rust Belt The deindustrialization of Detroit has been a major factor in the population decline of the city. InDetroit had a population ofpeople, making it the thirteenth largest city in the U. The industry drew a million new residents to the city.
The new workers came from diverse and soon far-flung sources. Nearby Canada was important early on and many other workers came from eastern and southern Europe, a large portion of them being ethnic Italians, Hungarians, and Poles.
An important attraction for these workers was that the new assembly line techniques required little prior training or education to get a job in the industry.
Immigration Act ofwith its limited annual quotas for new immigrants. In response, the industry - with Ford in the forefront - turned in a significant way to hiring African-Americans, who were leaving the South in huge numbers in response to the combination of a post-war agricultural slump and continuing Jim Crow practices.
A World War II boom in the manufacture of war materiel contributed to this growth surge.
A variety of factors associated with the auto industry fed this trend. There was the large influx of workers. They earned comparatively high wages in the auto industry. The plants they worked at, belonging to different major and minor manufacturers, were spread around the city.
The workers tended to live along extended bus and streetcar lines leading to their workplaces. The result of these influences, beginning already by the s, was that many workers bought or built their own single family or duplex homes.
They did not tend to live in large apartment houses, as in New York, or in closely spaced row houses as in Philadelphia.
They tended to have far less access to New Deal mortgage support programs such as Federal Housing Authority and Veterans Administration insured mortgages.
African-American neighborhoods were viewed by lenders and the federal programs as riskier, resulting - in this period - in much lower rates of homeownership for African-Americans than other residents of the city.
This upper stratum moved to outlying neighborhoods, and further, to well-to-do suburbs such as Bloomfield Hills and Grosse Pointe. Oakland County, north of the city, became a popular place to live for executives in the industry. Public policy was automobile oriented.
Funds were directed to the building of expressways for automobile traffic, to the detriment of public transit and the inner city neighborhoods through which they were cut to get to the auto factories and the downtown office buildings.
On the other hand, there were very few African-Americans in the suburbs. Real estate agents would not sell to them, and if African-Americans did try to move into suburbs there was "intense hostility and often violence" in reaction. This change was facilitated by the great concentration of automobile production into the hands of the "Big Three" of General MotorsFordand Chrysler.
The Big Three were able to put nearly every smaller competitor auto-maker out of business. While this corporate concentration was taking place, the Big Three were shifting their production out of central Detroit. Between and the Big Three built 25 new manufacturing plants in the metropolitan area, not one of them in the city itself.
Ford Motor was one of the first to undertake major decentralization, in reaction to labor developments.
This led Ford to be concerned about the vulnerability of its huge, flagship Rouge River plant to labor unrest. Ford therefore decentralized operations from this plant, to soften union power and to introduce new technologies in new plants, and expand to new markets.
Ford often built up parallel production facilities, making the same products, so that the effect of a strike at any one facility would be lessened.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years. We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state.
The city skyline was shaped by architects like Justus F. Krumbein and David L.
Williams, only to drastically change in the face of urban renewal and the desire for modernization. In Lost, Portland Oregon (History Press), historian Val C. Ballestrem explores the city's architectural heritage from the s to .
According to Marxists, a marginal surplus population is produced because capitalism necessarily produces A. unemployed workers, B.
disaffected intellecturals, C. a lower management class conflicted in its loyalties, D. a rate of population growth slightly larger than the rate of economic growth, E. a growing wealthy leisure class. English language: English language, a West Germanic language of the Indo-European language family that is closely related to Frisian, German, and Dutch languages.
It originated in England and is the dominant language of the U.S., the U.K., Canada, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand. It has become the world’s lingua franca. His book, Ugandan Music in the Marketing Era: The Branded Arena is a ethnographic study of the commercialization of folk music and dance heritage in Uganda.
He is currently working on a book on a Ugandan guitar genre known as kadongo kamu. English victory cleared the natives of southern New England and" allowed the uninterrupted growth of England's northern colonies right up to the American Revolution," and became as well "the brutal model for how the United States would deal with its native population." The extraordinarily rapid rise of America to financial and industrial.